What Is Energy Band Theory?


Answer:
Electrons of an isolated atom are bound to the nucleus, and can only have distinct energy level. How ever, when a large number of atoms, say, are brought close to one another to form a solid, each strength level of the isolated atom splits into N sub-levels, called states, under the bustle of the forces exerted by other atoms in the solid. These permissible energy states are discrete but so closely spaced that they appear to form a continuous strength band. In between two consecutive permissible energy band, there is arrange of energy states which cannot be occupied by electrons. These are call forbidden energy states, and its range is termed as forbidden vim gap.

The electrons in the outermost shell of an atom are called valence electrons and the liveliness band occupying these electrons is known as valence group. It is obviously the highest occupied nouns. It may be either completely filled or partially full up with electrons and can never be empty. The band above the valence tie is called conducting band. In conducting band, electrons move freely and conduct electric current through solids. That is why the electrons occupy this band are known as conductive electrons or free electrons. Any electron leaving the valence group is accommodated by this band. It may be either leave or partially filled with electrons. The band below the valence band are normally completely filled and as such play no sector in the conduction process.

Thus, while discussing the electrical conductivity we will consider only the valence and conductive bands.Insulators are those materials within which valence electrons are bound very tightly to their atoms and are not free. In terms of energy band, it means that an insulator has an empty conductional company, a full valence band and a large energy outlet between them.
Conductors are those which have plenty of free electrons for electrical conduction. In terms of energy band, it means that conductors are those materials in which valence and conduction bands largely overlap respectively other.

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